Respiratory tract infection
Respiratory tract infection belongs among the most frequent and common human diseases.
Human respiratory tract is a system of organs, which ensures exchange of gases between blood and the environment. Respiratory tract includes the following parts (nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi) and the lungs.
Respiratory tract is divided to the upper and lower part. The upper respiratory tract consists of the nasal cavity (cavitas nasi), paranasal sinuses and the larynx. The function of the upper respiratory tract is mainly heating, moisturizing and removal of microscopic particles from the inhaled air (dust, bacteria, etc.).
The lower respiratory tract starts with larynx fortified with cartilage. The largest is the thyroid cartilage. It is visible on the neck as the Adam's apple; more prominent in men. In the middle part of the larynx is present the glottis surrounded by vocal cords, which markedly contributes to the production of voice. Trachea is connected by the cricoid cartilage and it branches to the main bronchi, which enter the right and left lung.
Trachea belongs to the lower respiratory tract and contributes to the respiratory process. Two main bronchi originate in the trachea and enter the lungs and branch into the bronchial tree, i.e. into progressively smaller bronchioles. The terminal bronchioles are ended with alveoli, in which occurs the exchange of gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) during respiration. The lining of bronchi (epithelium) is ciliary. Cilia help the airways to remove dust and microorganisms by their movements. The lining swells in case of inflammation, phlegm is accumulated and covers the epithelium and prevents cilia to accomplish useful function. The respiratory tract avoids such condition by irritable cough, in order to remove collected phlegm.
Lungs (pulmo or pneumo) is a pair organ, which enables exchange of gases between blood and air. Human lungs consist of millions of thin-walled sacs, pulmonary alveoli, which are surrounded by blood capillaries. Air enters alveoli, oxygen diffuses to blood in capillaries and carbon dioxide reaches alveoli and is removed during exhalation from the body.
Right lung consists of three lobes and the left lung of two lobes of spongy tissue. Lungs are located in the pleural cavity and it is covered with fibrous membrane – visceral pleura. The chest cavity is covered with fibrous membrane – parietal pleura. There is small amount of fluid between both membranes, which enables movement of tissues during inspiration and expiration.
Exchange of air in the lungs takes place by respiratory movements, accomplished by respiratory muscles. The most important respiratory muscle is the diaphragm, which separates the abdominal cavity and chest and moves down in inspiration and up in expiration. When it moves down, the chest cavity enlarges and air is inhaled to the lungs. Apart from the diaphragm, the volume of the chest is increased also by the movements of the intervertebral muscles, which elevate the ribs and thereby increase the volume of the chest. Inspiration is an active event, expiration is passive.
There is 0.5 litre of air exchanged in the pulmonary alveoli with one inspiration and expiration. At rest, we make about 14 - 18 respirations per minute.
Respiratory system is continuously connected with the environment by means of inhaled air. Together with air, we also inhale dust, viruses and bacteria. Should viruses and bacteria enter the respiratory tract, the actual immune system of the organism is activated and it is able to destroy infection. In case the immune system is weaker, the balance between the strength of the immune mechanisms and harmful bacteria or viruses usually changes and infection of respiratory airways develops.
Most of the infections of the upper and lower airways are caused by bacteria and viruses. Infection of the upper airways affect the nose, throat, oral cavity and larynx. It is one of the most frequent diseases and the most frequently affected are children. The most common include cold, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis and laryngitis. Inflammation of the upper airways is most frequently caused by viral infection, and sometimes also by bacterial infection. These infections develop often as a part of cold or flu. Diseases of the upper airways are often associated with coryza, pyrexia, headache, hoarse voice, sore throat and also pain in ears in children.
Infections of the lower airways include bronchitis and pneumonia. Bronchitis is a disease, which affects the lower airways (bronchi), which directly lead to both lungs. Bronchitis is manifested either in acute or chronic form. Both diseases have different causes. This is manifested mainly by irritative cough, which is associated with sputum. This is quite frequent disease; it is not so serious in its acute form however chronic inflammation of the bronchi may cause significant complaints and medical and social complications.
OLIMUNOVAC is a proprietary patented product developed in cooperation with the specialists from the Medical Faculty of the Palacky University in Olomouc.
It contains harmless parts of bacteria, which are frequently responsible for respiratory tract infections.
OLIMUNOVAC - for respiratory tract
- OLIMUNOVAC is bacterial lysates from strains with strong stimulatory activity of the immune system
- OLIMUNOVAC is used in adults and children from the age of 3 years to increase non-specific immunity
- OLIMUNOVAC contains a dose for four months in one packaging
- OLIMUNOVAC is an over-the-counter product available in a pharmacy without prescription
- OLIMUNOVAC is not intended to replace rich diet
- Ask your pharmacist for OLIMUNOVAC. Read the information leaflet carefully prior to use